You can help improve services by providing data that’s freely available, accessible and machine-readable.
In the Public Data Policy Statement, the Australian Government commits to optimise the use and reuse of public data, release non-sensitive data as open by default and to collaborate with the private and research sectors to extend the value of public data for the benefit of the Australian public.Back to top
What is open data?
Governments have a lot of data that can be published publicly. Where this data is made available in a machine-readable way, digital services are required to make it available to support improved information and service delivery for users.
Examples of government data include the location and quality of broadband connections, the number of people receiving different types of support from Centrelink, or the boundaries for federal elections.
Data.gov.au has thousands of datasets from hundreds of government agencies.
Open data is data that is:
- freely available
- easily discoverable and accessible
- published in ways and under licences that allow it to be used by other people
Government data should be by default:
- on or linked through data.gov.au for discoverability
- in a machine-readable, spatially enabled format
- presented with descriptive metadata
- free to the end user
- published using agreed open data standards
- kept up to date in an automated way where appropriate
- made available under a Creative Commons by attribution licence unless a clear case is made for another open licence
Open data may be available in other formats that do not meet these standards. For example, data published in a PDF file with all rights reserved is less open than data in a spreadsheet file published under a Creative Commons by attribution licence. However, both are forms of open data.Back to top
Why you should make data open
Your open data can give:
- users information and an informed choice about the services they use
- service managers the information they can rely on to understand what what users need
- businesses and the community (including the voluntary sector) an opportunity to take the data released and produce goods and services from it
Building your services on open formats and open standards means you can more easily share, reuse or exchange data.
It will also mean that you will have a choice about which technology to use, rather than being limited to a particular product or supplier.Back to top
How to make data open
Government agencies produce a lot of data that describes the services they offer and how well those services are performing. Examples include data from analytics tools and key performance indicators.
There’s also data on how people use these services and who those people are.
Data about service performance allows service managers to see how well a service is running. It also means that users can hold us to account. Data about service performance should be public data.
You should publish all public data. But you should not publish any private details/data collected from people or data that’s restricted for national security reasons.
Public data is anonymised data:
- on which public services are run and assessed
- on which policy decisions are based
- that is collected or generated in the course of your service delivery
If you’ve made a procurement choice that means your performance data is monitored or stored by a third party, you should make sure you have the right to access, export, share and reuse that data openly and in an open format.
People are already using your services, giving you lots of data about their behaviour. This means you can learn from real-world behaviour when you’re designing a new digital service.
You can watch and learn from your users, shaping the system to fit what people naturally choose to do.
In making your data open, you’re encouraging greater use of the data and helping users to innovate.
Developers need to be able to use the data, to share it and combine it with other data to use in their own applications, for example through application programming interfaces (APIs).
As with all government digital services, you’ll need to understand the user need for the data you publish.
You’ll need to keep developers aware of what datasets you’re releasing and to maintain relationships with the primary data users who are at the cutting edge of technology.
They can help you to do things differently and in more agile ways. You can subscribe to the data.gov.au blog to keep in touch.
You should consider privacy issues at the beginning of all discussions about releasing a new dataset, or building or changing a digital service dealing with personal data.
You’ll need to make privacy and security high priorities. You’ll need to protect individual privacy by taking steps to make sure personal data is secure.
Under the Privacy Act 1988 information becomes ‘personal information’ if there is a chance a person’s identity could be determined. As more data becomes available and as datasets are made available for data-matching, it becomes easier to link information back to an individual.
You must take steps to anonymise the data to ensure confidentiality of individuals while maintaining the integrity of the data and its value to users.
Licences provide a clear and standard guide for other people about how they can use your data, including the option to re-use, remix and share the content.
You should provide easy access to material that you publish. You can encourage its public use by providing permissions for its use and re-use without requiring royalties and on a non-exclusive basis.
You should use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Australia (CC BY 3.0 AU) for publishing data and information, unless a clear case is made for another open licence. You can access the licence text on the Creative Commons website in either plain English or legal code.
This content has been adapted from the UK Government Design Manual guide on Open data under the Open Government Licence v2.0 and from the Australian Government Open Data Toolkit under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Australia licence.Back to top